Liver & Pancreas Diseases


Pancreatitis is inflammation in the pancreas. The pancreas is a long, flat gland that sits tucked behind the stomach in the upper abdomen. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digestion and hormones that help regulate the way your body processes sugar (glucose).

Pancreatitis can occur as acute pancreatitis — meaning it appears suddenly and lasts for days. Or pancreatitis can occur as chronic pancreatitis, which is pancreatitis that occurs over many years.

Mild cases of pancreatitis may go away without treatment, but severe cases can cause complications.

Pancreatitis occurs when digestive enzymes become activated while still in the pancreas, irritating the cells of your pancreas and causing inflammation.

With repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis, damage to the pancreas can occur and lead to chronic pancreatitis. Scar tissue may form in the pancreas, causing loss of function. A poorly functioning pancreas can cause digestion problems and diabetes.

Conditions that can lead to pancreatitis include:

  • Alcoholism, Gallstones
  • Abdominal surgery, Certain medications
  • Cigarette smoking, Cystic fibrosis
  • Family history of pancreatitis
  • High calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia), which may be caused by an overactive parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism)
  • High triglyceride levels in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia)
  • Infection, Injury to the abdomen
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Sometimes, a cause for pancreatitis is never found Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis may vary, depending on which type you experience.

    Acute pancreatitis signs and symptoms include:

  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain that radiates to your back
  • Abdominal pain that feels worse after eating
  • Fever, Rapid pulse
  • Nausea, Vomiting
  • Tenderness when touching the abdomen
  • Chronic pancreatitis signs and symptoms include:

  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Oily, smelly stools (steatorrhea)
  • Disease affecting digestion refers to pancreatic diseases. Most common conditions are Acute or Chronic Pancreatitis, Pancreatic Cancer due to alcohol consumption, biliary stone, Pancreatic Pseudocyst and Cystic Fibrosis which is a genetic disorder.

    Hepatitis A & E

    Hepatitis A & E are water born liver infections caused by the virus. These viruses are one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause inflammation and affect your liver's ability to function. You are most likely to acquire hepatitis A or E virus from contaminated food or water. Mild cases of hepatitis A & E don't require treatment, and most people who are infected recover completely with no permanent liver damage. In childhood, hepatitis A is normally asymptomatic.

    Hepatitis A & E virus can be transmitted several ways, such as:

  • Eating food handled by someone with the virus who doesn't thoroughly wash his or her hands after using the toilet
  • Drinking or bathing in contaminated water
  • Eating raw shellfish from water polluted with sewage
  • Hepatitis A & E signs and symptoms, which typically don't appear until you have had the virus for a few weeks, may include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially in the area of your liver on your right side beneath your lower ribs
  • Dark urine
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Clay-coloured stool
  • Chronic pancreatitis signs and symptoms include:

  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Oily, smelly stools (steatorrhea)
  • Disease affecting digestion refers to pancreatic diseases. Most common conditions are Acute or Chronic Pancreatitis, Pancreatic Cancer due to alcohol consumption, biliary stone, Pancreatic Pseudocyst and Cystic Fibrosis which is a genetic disorder.

    Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your risk of developing cirrhosis — a condition that causes permanent scarring of the liver, liver failure or liver cancer.

    Most adults infected with hepatitis B recover fully, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are more likely to develop a chronic hepatitis B infection. A vaccine can prevent hepatitis B. Taking certain precautions can help to prevent spreading of HBV to others

    Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B, ranging from mild to severe, usually appear about 1-3 months after you've been infected. Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B may include: Abdominal pain, Dark urine, Fever, Joint pain, Loss of appetite, Nausea and vomiting, Weakness and fatigue, Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice).

    Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The virus is passed from person to person through blood, semen or other body fluids.

    Common ways HBV is transmitted include:

  • Sexual contact. You may become infected if you have unprotected sex with an infected partner whose blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body.
  • Sharing of needles. HBV is easily transmitted through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood. Sharing intravenous (IV) drug paraphernalia puts you at high risk of hepatitis B.
  • Accidental needle sticks. Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood.
  • Mother to child. Pregnant women infected with HBV can pass the virus to their babies during childbirth. However, the newborn can be vaccinated to avoid getting infected in almost all cases. Talk to your doctor about being tested for hepatitis B if you are pregnant or want to become pregnant
  • Acute vs. chronic hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis B infection may be either short-lived (acute) or long lasting (chronic).
  • Acute hepatitis B infection lasts less than six months. Your immune system can clear acute hepatitis B from your body, and you should recover completely within a few months. Most people who acquire hepatitis B as adults have an acute infection, but it can lead to chronic infection
  • Chronic hepatitis B infection lasts six months or longer. When your immune system can't fight off the acute infection, hepatitis B infection may last a lifetime and if not treated may lead to serious illnesses such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
  • The younger you are when you get hepatitis B — particularly newborns or children younger than 5 — the higher your risk the infection becoming chronic. Chronic infection may go undetected for decades until a person becomes seriously ill from liver disease or is discovered incidentally.
  •  Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is a viral infection that usually causes chronic liver inflammation leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood, contaminated syringe & unprotected sex. Can also rarely be transmitted from mother to foetus during delivery.

    Today, chronic HCV is usually curable with oral medication.

    Most people with HCV don't know they're infected, mainly because they have no symptoms, which can take decades to appear.

    Untreated chronic hepatitis C increases your risk of developing cirrhosis — a condition that causes permanent scarring of the liver, liver failure or liver cancer.

    Chronic hepatitis C is usually a "silent" infection for many years, until the virus damages the liver enough to cause the signs and symptoms of liver disease. Among these signs and symptoms are: Bleeding easily, Bruising easily, Fatigue, Poor appetite, Yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes (jaundice), Dark-colored urine, Itchy skin, Fluid buildup in your abdomen (ascites), Swelling in your legs, Weight loss, Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy), Spider-like blood vessels on your skin (spider angiomas).

    Every chronic hepatitis C infection starts with an acute phase. Acute hepatitis C usually goes undiagnosed because it rarely causes symptoms. When signs and symptoms are present, they may include jaundice, along with fatigue, nausea, fever and muscle aches. Acute symptoms appear one to three months after exposure to the virus and last two weeks to three months.

    Acute hepatitis C infection doesn't always become chronic. Some people clear HCV from their bodies after the acute phase, an outcome known as spontaneous viral clearance.

    Your risk of hepatitis C infection is increased if you:

  • Are a health care worker who has been exposed to infected blood, which may happen if an infected needle pierces your skin
  • IV drug abusers
  • Have HIV
  • Piercing or tattoo in an unclean environment using unsterile equipment
  • Blood transfusion or organ transplant
  • Hemodialysis

  • Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Liver is an organ that processes food we eat, stores energy and provides the body with a healthy immune system.

    Drinking too much alcohol can lead to three types of liver conditions - fatty liver, hepatitis and liver 'scarring' (cirrhosis). Any, or all, of these conditions can occur at the same time in the same person.

    Fatty liver
    Fatty Liver

    Alcoholic hepatitis

    Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The inflammation can range from mild to severe.

    Mild hepatitis may not cause any symptoms. The only indication of inflammation may be an abnormal level of liver chemicals (enzymes) in the blood, which can be detected by a blood test. However, in some cases the hepatitis becomes persistent (chronic), which can gradually damage the liver and eventually cause cirrhosis. A more severe hepatitis tends to cause symptoms such as: Feeling sick (nausea), Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes (jaundice), caused by a high level of bilirubin, sometimes, pain over the liver. A very severe bout of alcoholic hepatitis can quickly lead to liver failure. This can cause deep jaundice, blood clotting problems, confusion, coma and bleeding into the guts. It is often fatal. Alcoholic cirrhosis

    Cirrhosis is a condition where normal liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue (fibrosis). The scarring tends to be a gradual process. The scar tissue affects the normal structure and regrowth of liver cells. Liver cells become damaged and die as scar tissue gradually develops. So, the liver gradually loses its ability to function well. The scar tissue can also affect the blood flow through the liver which can cause back pressure in the blood vessels which bring blood to the liver.

    Cirrhosis can happen from many causes other than alcohol - for example, persistent viral hepatitis and some hereditary and metabolic diseases. If you have another persistent liver disease and drink heavily, you are likely to increase your risk of developing cirrhosis.


    Liver is an organ that processes food we eat, stores energy and provides the body with a healthy immune system.

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very common disorder and refers to a group of conditions where there is accumulation of excess fat in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol. The most common form of NAFLD is a non serious condition called fatty liver.

    In fatty liver, fat accumulates in the liver cells. Although having fat in the liver is not normal, by itself it probably does not damage the liver. Some people with NAFLD may have a more serious condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In NASH, fat accumulation is associated with liver cell inflammation and different degrees of scarring.

    NASH is a potentially serious condition that may lead to severe liver scarring and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis occurs when the liver sustains substantial damage, and the liver cells are gradually replaced by scar tissue, which results in the inability of the liver to work properly. Some patients who develop cirrhosis may eventually require a liver transplant (surgery to remove the damaged liver and replace it with a “new” liver).

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease usually causes no signs and symptoms. When it does, they may include: Enlarged liver, Fatigue, discomfort in the upper right abdomen.

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are both linked to the following:

  • Overweight or obesity (Lean people may also suffer from NASH)
  • Insulin resistance, in which your cells don't take up sugar in response to the hormone insulin.
  • High blood sugar (hyperglycemia).
  • High levels of fats, particularly triglycerides, in the blood.
  • These combined health problems appear to promote the deposition of fat in the liver. For some people, this excess fat acts as a toxin to liver cells, causing liver inflammation and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which may lead to a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.
  • Some patients with excessive fibrosis progress to cirrhosis.
  • Cirrhosis of Liver

    Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis do so because they injure and kill liver cells, after which the inflammation and repair that is associated with the dying liver cells causes scar tissue to form. The liver cells that do not die multiply in an attempt to replace the cells that have died. This results in clusters of newly formed liver cells (regenerative nodules) within the scar tissue. There are many causes of cirrhosis including chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses, toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases), and autoimmune liver disease in which the body's immune system attacks the liver.

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